Support for controlling widow and orphan content was added in iText 7.1.11 so that content looks precise on the document page.


  • A widow is a lone word or short group of words that appears at the bottom of a paragraph, column or page.
  • They tend to make long sections of text look unbalanced and messy, as well as leaving too much excess white space at the end of a page.
  • An orphan is a similar unwanted straggler, but this describes words that appear at the top of a page.
  • Orphans really belong on the previous page, as not only do they look untidy on the page they appear, but they also break the flow of reading across two pages.

Below is an example demonstrating how to enable widow and orphan processing in your layout: